Why Spend Time Scripture Daily?

How do we discover who God is, what his plan is for us, and what he wants us to do? Why did the saints devour the word of God? Perhaps they found in them like Therese of Lisieux “a hidden, pure, and genuine manna.” Thus, it became part of their daily routine. It instructed their mind, shaped their desires, and informed their decisions. Mary pondered the word of God to the point it became enfleshed in her (cf. Luke 2:19). Here are a few basic reasons why we should be prayerful and reflect on the word of God daily.

Man Reading BibleDo you want to understand who you are? Do you want to know your own story even before you live it? Do you want to see the human race in his beauty and ugliness and foibles, at his best and worst, acting like an angel today and behaving like a beast tomorrow? Then read scripture. There you will meet David — a man to whom God gives everything — pleasure, power, honor and wealth, yet he took a poor man’s wife and murdered him (2 Sam. 11-12:1-14). There you will learn the story of the Israelites — taken out of Egypt by God’s strong arm. Yet during 40 days without Moses to remind them of the word of God, they turned to idols (Ex. 32-34). There you will see what happens when people abuse their God-given power in the story of Naboth, Ahab and Jezebel (1 Kings 21). There you can meditate on the consequences of associating with those who cultivate no fear of God (1 Kings 11), discover the towering power of an unwavering faith in Susanna (Dan. 13), and ponder the depths of God’s mercy in the story of the prodigal son and the woman caught in adultery (Luke 15: 11-32; John 8:1-11). Scripture is our personal story. In it, we find ourselves.

modern-philosophy-by-rpc-2-638Would you like a complete guide for the 3 fundamental relationships that form the basis of life — God, neighbor, and ourselves? Look no further than the Bible. It provides the wisest and most prudent way to act with the wealthy when you are poor, with the young when you are old, and with authorities when you are a subject. What should we look for in a spouse? What is the regiment for a blessed and fruitful marriage? We only have to read the Books of Sirach and Proverbs to find out. Who am I? What am I afraid of? What should one do to attain eternal bliss? Only scripture tells us. How does one win friends and influence people to the right course of actions? That’s in scripture too. It is no doubt that the Bible is a library. Everything is in there. Read it in family, and among friends; treasure it; memorize it. That’s the recipe for a happy life.

Photo 5We forget easily. Interestingly, one of the most common phrases in the book of Deuteronomy is, “Remember O Israel, do not forget.” The human mind is darkened as a result of Original sin; our ability to remember God’s word is a perpetual struggle, and our desire to submit to it is weakened (cf. Rom. 7: 18-19). The remedy against this is to turn it into a habit. Constantly going back to scripture, analyzing it, mediating on it and contemplating allows it to sink in and become part of the very fabric of our inner being. Once it becomes ingrained in us, it starts becoming part of our thoughts, words, actions, habits and character. Character is our destiny; our destiny is heaven. Scripture tells us how to get there and the Church empowers us through the sacraments to help us on our journey.


Kierkegaard, the Danish Philosopher, argues that Christianity as we know it today barely relates itself to the message that Jesus preached in the New Testament. Christians are not striving to come closer to the Christianity of the New Testament, he further maintains. I am no Christian apologetic, but I find it necessary to analyze the veracity of Kierkegaard’s claim.

imagesHe maintains that Luther had written 95 theses to show Christianity’s wretchedness, but today only one is necessary— honestly. When we juxtapose the way we are living the Christian life with the one preached in the New Testament, they almost have nothing in common. Official Christianity does not even dare to make clear the requirement of Jesus’ teachings in the new testament because that would bring to light how far removed the two are. We, Christians, live and love in the ordinary human way and so fail to live the extraordinary life that Christianity requires of us. Diognetus had written a letter to Christian in the third century. in it, he remarked that although are similar to other men by nationality, language or customs. They do not inhabit separate cities of their own, or speak a strange dialect, they are distinct by the way they lived. This is no longer true unfortunately. and the consequent is dire.

To illustrate his point, he gives an example. A Christian teacher is paid several thousand dollars as his wages. If we suppress the Christian criterion and assume the ordinary ‘human criterion’, which encourages that a person should have his wages for his work in order to live a respectable life with his family and maintain a perfect life’s standard, then that’s great. However, as soon as the idea of Christian poverty is asserted, several thousand is too high a salary. Christianity requires that when our most basic needs are met, the rest be given to the poor. One can live best the Christian requirement only in poverty (of spirit). It is dishonesty to call ourselves Christian when we so miserably fail to live the Christian requirement. We are dishonest about doing what Jesus requires. We give them our own interpretation according to our own expediency; nevertheless, the way we live is so far removed from the Sermon on the Mount’s requirements. “I will not participate… in what is called Christianity”, Kierkegaard says. even Pope Francis shockingly said that, “God would not be Christian if he comes back today”— loosely interpreted, christianity has become too pharisaical. We need to go back to the the beginning seriously. iStock_000031437424_Double

Now how right is Kierkegaard? I believe that the Christian life cannot be reduced to a few critiques. They are people who genuinely try to abide by the teaching of Jesus. Christianity However, it would make Christianity and Christians much more respectable in the world if we actually take very seriously Kierkegaard’s critic. Have you seen how lovable and respectable those who take the Christian faith very seriously are? Not only people respect their sacrifice, they are also attracted to their joy and peace. Religious freedom is being challenged everywhere in the world; perhaps if we take Christianity as Kierkegaard advocated it, no one would dare challenge it since our service would be in so much demands. I must admit as a group, we don’t stand out. We are just like everyone else. There is no way to differentiate Christians and the crowd. We go to their theaters, we watch whatever they want us to watch, we learn what they teach us, and we follow their rules even if they violate our conscience. How do you think the early Christians were able to conquer the world and spread the Word so quickly? It was because they accepted to set a standard tailored after the heart of Jesus— a standard that the ordinary world despised. Of course, that caused them to be imprisoned, mistreated, guillotined and killed, but it also put the world on the path to salvation. Due to our radical examples, the world fell to its knees and asked us for help. Our standards gave meaning to life, put life in right order, and helped put life in perspective.

early-massToday, that standard is lost because we’ve gotten too comfortable over the years. the world has re-conquered the low standard in which it was living before Christianity blossomed. They are winning big time and the powerful force that is Christianity is sleeping. Until we wake up, Kierkegaard’s voice will keep on echoing on our cathedrals, churches, chapels, seminaries, schools, and workplaces. Until then, his voice will continue to resound in our deepest conscience that this Christianity is too far removed from the one preached in the Bible.

Spiritual Direction– The Soul’s Remedy

Seeking spiritual direction is a sign of spiritual maturity. It is a sign that one has passed the age of spiritual milk, and ready for solid food (1 Cor. 3:2). Anyone who wants to live their baptism responsibly should make spiritual direction an intrinsic part of their lives. It is the soul’s medicine, and the best way to grow in holiness.

Here are a few reasons to consider spiritual direction:

We need a coach for the race. We are familiar with Olympic champions. They take reaching the top so seriously that they would never consider attempting it without a coach. St. John Paul II related how Jan Tyranowski, a simple clerk and tailor, helped him developed his interior life and thus gave him the tools to find his purpose in life. when he became a University chaplain, John Paul II recalled  how he used to go camping with the students. Through what he learned from Jan, he was able to coach them to unleash the masterpiece they are and how best to comport themselves as a result. we can become the person God wants us to be on our own.


Anyone who is serious about holiness can relate to the words of St. Augustine in The Confessions: “I longed for the chance to devote myself wholly to you, but …my two wills are in conflict and they rob my soul of all concentration” (VIII, 5:10). This pilgrim journey is a tale of twisting and turning down the road to heaven. We lose momentum at times and need help nudging toward our destiny. Our best help lies in getting someone who knows the way well. As we labor in pain waiting for the fulfillment of our hope and the glorious coming of our savior (Rom. 8:22-23), the best way to ensure we are making progress is to have a spiritual guide to keep us fit.

We all have blind spots. We all have biases. Anyone who has tried to be truly honest with him- or herself knows how difficult that is. None of us sees ourselves as we truly are. Most often we think we are better than we actually are, although sometimes we sell ourselves short. There are times we even lie to ourselves. How do we discover ourselves as we truly are? Sunday homilies are helpful, but clearly insufficient when it comes to specifics. The confessional is not the place to deal with topics that takes great amount of time. Friends are often afraid to offend us. Spiritual directors can put the mirror before us and enable us to face reality. Seeing ourselves as we truly are opens the door to real spiritual growth.


We are all wounded. GK. Chesterton captures well the reality of our lives in this world this way: “we’re all in one boat, and we’re all seasick.” The reality is we are all cracked and bruised and in need of repair. There are things in our past that hurt so deeply, we don’t even want to talk about them yet those are precisely what we need to talk about. Some things, of which we might not be aware, restrain our interior peace. Unless we allow the soothing touch of Christ to reach into our brokenness, we remain wounded. Only through regular spiritual direction can we recognize these wounds and be to heal.

How do we locate a good spiritual director? The same way we locate a good physician – we ask others. You can start by asking your pastor for recommendations. Pray to the Holy Spirit to lead you to one that fits your needs. Religious houses like seminaries, convents, or priories usually have qualified directors. Try to get a trained spiritual director, if possible. A learned, experienced, and holy priest is the ideal director. Even the saints have complained how difficult it is to find a suitable one, so persevere! In the meantime, get someone.

The Ethic of Gratuity and MLK

The path of peace without violence is not an easy one. But when it is done well, it is a jewel to behold.

A striking passage in pope Benedict XVI’s encyclical– Charity in Truth (June 29, 2009)— made the following point: even if justice constitutes the basis of all society, it needs the “ethic of gratuity” in order to function well. Justice is to give another his due; charity compels us to give what’s ours to another. So charity goes beyond justice. Justice is “the minimum measure”. Charity demands justice. That means intrinsic to charity there is some form of justice. Here is the point– society is built according to law and justice, both commutative and distributive, but charity transcends justice and completes it in the logic of giving and forgiving. Society flourishes not merely by relationships of rights and duties, but fundamentally by relationships of gratuitousness, mercy, and communion (Caritas in Veritate, 6).


As we remember Martin Luther King today, it is worth pointing out how well he brought about this ethic of gratuity in the civil right movement in the 1960s. He commenced that movement in order to put a final end to slavery, oppression, discrimination, segregation, and injustice suffered by the black community. He chose the path of non-violence although in all justice, he would have been right to have recourse to revenge. Despite the many deaths, burning of churches, police brutality he and his people endured, he remained firm in the conviction that darkness couldn’t drive out darkness. Hate cannot drive out hate; only love and reconciliation can do that. Unlike his predecessors Malcom X and co., he preferred peace because he knows unarmed truth and unconditional love always have the final word in reality. After the movement, he could have asked for restitution and justice from the US for all the many years of violence and injustice the blacks have suffered, but he chose to move on. he was moved by Charity.

bby1dal-imgCharity ennobles the act of the human person. Because he was acting in charity, even those who had no particular interest in the movement joined him. Charity moves the heart of others. So, because of his choice and vision and the principle of gratuity from which he acted, his dream of seeing black and white forming one community was realized. Had he chosen to do otherwise would his dream ever become true? Where would America be today? Would America ever rule the world? While we will never know, what we do know is that he will remain a model to follow for generations.

After WWII, Germany was in dire need of the principle of gratuity. The world chose and rightly so not to punish the German nation despite the many atrocities they had caused and so allowed them to build itself up and embrace its dignity again. The world works so hard to unite West and East Germany after the war, and in 1989, it became a reality. Had the world applied strict justice on the Germans, where would they be today? Because of this gratuity, there are no grudges between Germany and world today. I would say it is this principle that drives the ‘welfare system’ in America. So, clearly many don’t deserve food, housing, social security benefit, free Medicare etc., but is it justice to let them wallow in their misery? If it is, is it charitable to do so? So while justice must always be preferred to injustice, we need to leaven of charity to give savor to the common good. otherwise, the society cannot function well.

The Little Way is Lived in Hidenness (Part 3)

The Little Way is not about self-praise, but a school of small acts done with great love for God’s glory. Humility, self-effacement, obedience, hiddenness, unfaltering charity and all the discipline they require are what define St. Therese’s Little Way. For her, God does not demand great deeds, recitation of long prayers, or ascetical practices, but only gratitude and self-surrender. “Offer to God the sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving” (Ps. 50:14).“God has need of our love; He has no need of our works”.[1] Small acts done with love exceed great deeds done for personal glory, gratification or simply out of obedience. So, to perfect ourselves, we ought to love God above all things and humble ourselves below all things. The aim is to perform small acts of love without reckoning, or being noticed. God who sees in secret will notice. “In reality, I am only what God thinks of me. I expect the praise I deserve only from God”.[2] My joy is to “Appear before God empty-handed, and spend your treasures as you gain them”.[3] Hiddenness and self-forgetfulness are two of the most important themes in Therese’s life and teachings. After all, did not Christ himself live a hidden life for 30 years?unknown

She became devoted to the suffering ‘Holy Face’ of Christ in order to enwrap herself in hiddenness. According to Von Balthazar, “her whole life in Christ is concentrated into her devotion to the Holy Face”.[4] In fact, the whole Monastery had a devotion to the suffering Holy Face of Jesus that was reflected on the veil of Veronica. This included an outdoor shrine in the cloister garden. Therese was constantly looking to see the hidden Holy Face of Jesus in everyone and everything. Her devotion to the ‘Holy Face’ even exceeds her devotion to the Child Jesus. This devotion became the centerpiece of her spirituality. Behind the Holy Face, she disappeared so that Christ may appear for all to see. Here lies the depth of her humility.

unknown-1Hiding behind the Holy face of Christ was a mean to console those through whom Christ is suffering. First, through the Holy Face, she associates the suffering of her father, who was mentally ill, by extension all sufferings, to the passion of Christ. She thus received permission to add to her religious name ‘of the Holy face’. Thus, her complete name became “St. Therese of Lisieux of the Child Jesus and of the Holy Face”. It was the mirror through which she conceived Christ.[5] Secondly, her devotion to the Holy Face was a way to reawaken the indifferent and the complacent. As someone puts it, “This is a commentary on our callousness, our myopia, our devaluation of what is precious, our blindness to the poor, and our lack of awareness in our relationship to God”.[6] She believes ”to live from love is to dry Christ’s face”[7] in the needy. Thirdly, her attraction to the Holy face was her own way to hide herself so that her acts may glorify God instead of herself. Thus, she made the words of the suffering servant entirely hers: “…There was no beauty or majesty in him. There was nothing special about… him. People looked down on him. They didn’t accept him. He knew all about pain and suffering… (Cf. Is 53: 2-3). Therese thus wished to be hidden from all view, go unnoticed, and be forgotten by all in order to find her beloved. “Christ is a hidden treasure. To find a hidden thing, we must be hidden ourselves”.[8] So, our life like the divine face, hidden with Christ in God, is revealed in the same measure as it is hidden in the divine mysteries. In this ambiance, the soul is no longer set before the veil that hides Christ’s face, but behind it.[9] Consequently, Christ’s face will be revealed in her, and so one cannot look at her without seeing the face of Christ.[10] This veiled face becomes the medium through which Christ is consoled and wretched souls are saved.

[1]Story of a soul, 113

[2] Stertenbrink, 126

[3] story of a soul, Act of Oblation to Merciful Love, 277

[4] Von Balthazar, 157

[5] Von Balthazar, 157

[6] unknown author, Key Elements in Therese’s spirituality, p2

[7] ibid, from her last conversation,

[8] von Balthazar, 158

[9] von Balthazar, 158

[10] von Balthazar, therese, 159

The Little Way (part2)

To achieve what is said in part one of the Little way, Therese resolves to seek out a mean to become a saint by a very short, straight, “Little Way” that is completely new.[1] In her mind, this way will be as new as a new technological invention; after all we live in an age of inventions; that way will be like “an elevator by which I may be raised unto God, for I am too tiny to climb the steep stairway of perfection.”[2] Grace inspires boldness in us. When the Holy Spirit overpowers us, we dare to try to find new ways to live the gospel. Where can she find that elevator or way? She turns to Holy Scripture where she finds “Whosoever is a little one, let him come to me…”(Prov. 9:4). There, she finds that Jesus’ arms are the elevator that will raise her up to heaven.[3] The inspired word of God, which is ever new and fresh while remaining old, “opens new vistas, new and unforeseeable paths”[4] for her. There we have it. the new way to greatness must be achieved through littleness.therese07

Here is the great lesson Therese wants to teach us here: greatness comes from smallness. She wants to be a great saint, but instead of trying to do something noticeable, she lowers herself, persevere, and surrender her will to God. What the prophet Micah said in relation to the birth of Christ can be applied to Therese here. “You, Bethlehem-Ephratha too small to be among the clans of Judah, from you shall come forth for me one who is to be ruler in Israel” (Micah 5:2). Therese who thought herself too small to be among the great saints is counted among the greatest saints that had ever graced the Church because she chooses to live the opposite of what she wanted to be. St. Francis de Sales advised, “when dealing with a character flaw, resort as much as possible to practicing the contrary virtue, and connect everything to it”.[5] Therese did precisely that. She wanted greatness, yet she chose littleness. She wanted fame, yet she chose hiddenness. Later, she became all at once, not just before men, but also before and because of God. Is this not a common occurrence in Scripture— the little giving rise to the great, wonderful things coming where you least expect them? Did stuttering Moses not speak up to mighty Pharaoh? Did the slave nation not defeat the mightiest army? Did tiny David not slaughter the giant Goliath? It is clear that when we surrender to God’s way, mighty forces come to our help.

img_0252Therese seems to intuit that method from God. After the Fall, God called Abraham, an unknown and powerless man to leave his country and move to an unknown land (Gen. 12), and made a great nation out of him. Out of all the powerful nations of the world, God chose a small and insignificant country for the savior of the world to be born; what’s more, while under the occupation of the most powerful nation on earth—Rome. In the midst of a wide world full of kingdoms with their mighty events and dramas, he devoted himself to little things, to individual men and women, and on “little people”. In a country where there were popular movements to overthrow the Romans, our Lord devoted many hours to one Samaritan woman, the one Nicodemus, the one Martha, the one Mary Magdalene, the one Lazarus, the one Simon Peter. That tells us the infinite value of the one (the little) is the key to the Christian understanding of the many (the great). God’s greatness is magnified more evidentially in small things.[6]

Do you want to please God too? well, it is possible, don’t become hopeless. trust wholeheartedly; choose the opposite of your flaw. you will succeed.

[1] Jacques Philippe, The Way of Love, p. 9

[2] Story of a soul 207

[3] Story of soul, 208

[4] Phillipe, 19

[5] Rudolf Stertenbrink, Wisdom of the Little Flower, 127

[6] Inspired from a quote of Anglican Primate Michael Ramsey used by Stertenbrink, 65-66

The Little Way of Therese (part1)

There is only one sadness in life: not to be a saint (Leon Bloy).

As we celebrate the Solemnity of All Saints, I see no one more fitting than St.Therese of Lisieux, my friend, my guide, my favorite saints, my aspiration and inspiration, to offer to my readers. She teaches us in very simple ways how to become a saint through her little way.

imagesWhat is the “Little Way” of St. Therese anyway? It is to become like a little child and acknowledge our powerlessness before the mighty God. As she puts it at the very beginning of her autobiography, “God’s Love is made manifest as well in a simple soul that does not resist His grace as in one more highly endowed”. Self-abasement is the characteristic of love; it seems that God enjoys coming to little souls. If all souls resembled the holy Doctors who have illuminated the Church, it seems that God would not stoop low enough. But He has created the little child, who knows nothing and can but utter feeble cries, and the poor savage who has only the natural law to guide him, and it is to their hearts that He deigns to stoop”.[1]

As the German writer Rudolf Stertenbrink puts it, “at the center of Theresian spirituality stands the concept of being a child in the presence of God”.[2] Therese wanted nothing more than to become more and more a child in the presence of God. Let us probe into the essence of a child! A child knows that it is nothing in and of itself; it has nothing; it can do nothing. A child is weak, innocent, naïve, and utterly dependent on others. A child has to look up because it expects everything to come from above. That’s what Therese believes will bring us in radical friendship with God. As she puts it in a letter to her sister Leonie on July 12, 1896:

“Look at a little child who has just vexed its mother, either by giving way to temper or by disobedience. If he hides in a corner and is sulky, or if he cries for fear of being punished, his mother will certainly not forgive the fault. But should he run to her with its little arms outstretched, and say: “Kiss me, Mother; I will not do it again!” what mother would not straightway clasp her child lovingly to her heart, and forget all it had done? …She knows quite well that her little one will repeat the fault—no matter, her darling will escape all punishment so long as it makes appeal to her heart.[3]

501a5172db413080cab0e8a0e172dd58With this, there is nothing counterintuitive about spiritual childish. As Stertenbrink asserts, “who is it within us who believes, hopes, prays, forgives, loves, and trusts? Who is it within us who weeps and laughs?”[4] It is the child at the bottom of our heart. The children within us is the part that most resembles the creator. A person who wants to brow and flourish must not lose contact with the child within. The disciples rebuked the little children who were coming to Jesus perhaps because they had lost contact with the child lying within their souls (cf. Luke 18:15-17). The perspective constitutes a fundamental characteristic of the Little Way. Whoever discovers this child hidden deep within is saved from dependence upon the past and fear of the future. It becomes possible in “the present moment”.[5] I bet there are some reading this who are caught up in the past mistakes. The Little Way offers a way out. Anyone can try it. If you fail, you just try again.

The ‘Little Way’ does not come without a fight. As a novice master, observing the novices, she noticed, “all souls have more or less the same battles to fight”.[6] So they need purification in order to be at the service of God. In a letter she sent her sister Céline on July 7, 1894, she reminds her of the spiritual dryness our soul sometimes undergoes as we journey in this valley of tears. “I went down into the garden to see… if the vineyard had flourished, but the pomegranates were in bud…”(cf. Song of songs 6:10, 11). There are times when the sweet consolations of God’s love and mercy are only “arid and waterless waste”. Since we are wayfarers, we feel “as gold is tired in the fire so must our souls be purified by temptation”.[7] What must be the proper attitude in these trying periods? She suggests that we fight even without the hope of winning the battle.[8] We must keep going no matter how strong the struggle may be.

One night, she had a dream in which soldiers were needed for a war; she readily accepts to go. Not surprisingly, her heroes were the Crucified Jesus and the martyrs. To make Christ known, she would not mind being mistreated like the crucified Lord, flayed like St. Bartholomew, plunged into boiling oil like St. John, ground by the teeth of wild beasts like St. Ignatius of Antioch, a bread worthy of God. She would offer my neck to the sword of the executioner like St. Agnes and St. Cecilia, and like Joan of Arc she would murmur the name of Jesus at the stake.[9] Although she was not privileged enough to suffer martyrdom, she fought to do every small acts as if it were her last act. In the same way, to master the little way, we must be armed with the spirit of the sword fighting as if that was our only chance; we never fight alone; Jesus, who had come to bring not peace but war, empowers us to fight and fights for us. We become victorious through these fights. Is there any winner who did not have to fight/struggle? Thats what makes the victory succulent actually. Victory is won at the point of the sword.[10]st-therese-1

The ‘Little Way’ is the way of love. Realizing that she is not called to the battlefield like a warrior, or to die at the stake like Joan of Arc— the heroine of France– “God made me understand that my personal glory would never reveal itself before the eyes of men, but that it would consist in becoming a Saint”[11]— she commits herself to battle by means of love. Inspired by the sight of a statue of The Blessed Joan of Arc, she prayed, “I burn to do battle for Thy Glory…. I know the warfare in which I am to engage; it is not on the open field I shall fight… My sword is Love! O my Jesus! I will do battle, then, for Thy love, until the evening of my life”.[12] She believes that no battle is fiercer and more final than the battle of love conducted with the sword of the spirit.[13] That battle is against the flesh, the will to power, the pharisaic attitude of self-glorification persisting in the faith. Fighting to love is the only worthy battle. When we fight with assiduous passion, “the heavenly militia comes to my aid since it cannot bear seeing us defeated after being victorious in the battle of love”.[14] We fight more courageously when we have heaven fighting for us and that’s our great victory.[15] So while we must be coward in the battle against the flesh, the battle to love must be fought relentlessly. If we persevere, then the heart becomes bolder and we will march from victory to victory.[16] Fight! Fight! Fight!

In the next post, I will give more concrete examples of what the little way entails.

[1] Story of a soul, 14

[2] Rudolf Stertenbrink, Wisdom of the Little Flower, 22

[3] Therese Letter 3, July 12, 1896

[4] Stertenbrink, 21

[5] ibid 21

[6] Story of a soul, 239

[7] Letter 18, July 7, 1894. http://www.catholicbible101.com/St.%20Therese%20Story%20of%20a%20soul.pdf

[8] Counsels and reminiscences of Therese, the little flower, http://www.catholicbible101.com/St.%20Therese%20Story%20of%20a%20soul.pdf

[9] Story of a Soul, 193

[10] Urs Von Balthazar, Therese, 171

[11] Story of a Soul, 72

[12] Prayer inspired by a statue of Joan of Arc, http://www.catholicbible101.com/St.%20Therese%20Story%20of%20a%20soul.pdf

[13] Von Balthazar, 174

[14] Story of a Soul, 222

[15] ibid

[16] Von Balthazar, 172